Human remains in Somaliland’s Valley of Death. (Photo courtesy of the Peruvian Forensic Anthropology Team, led by Franco Mora)
Siyad Barre’s Autocratic regime that exalted Somali Republic for 21 years (1969 – 1991) with centralized autocratic government with severe economic and social regimentation, in addition forcible suppression of opposition has ruined the country’s resources with nepotism. Barre’s family own major shares in companies in the Arabian Gulf, Europe and east Africa, with fact that the family had no history of involving in the business or trading other than controlling the national treasury.
The Barre family and their close collaborators looted the assets of former Somali Republic including appointing tribesmen to the top positions of the government and sending their children to the best universities in the world using the public money, particularly, in last years of his regime, Barre transferred his associates to the Somalia’s embassies Norther America and Europe. This was part of massive relocation plan to escape of possible legal prosecution, which started early 1980s.
The below Associated Press article about military officers who committed atrocities in former Somali Republic (Northern Region) and facing prosecution abroad. The article shows the effectiveness of the relocation plan.
The current President of Somalia Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed aka FARMAJO from formaggio, the Italian word for cheese, who is from Barre’s tribe of Marehan – Reer Diini, was transferred to Somali Embassy in Washington as First Secretary with no previous experience in diplomacy and international relations, as part of the relocation plan.
After the collapse of Barre’s regime in 1991, the young FARMAJO applied for asylum as refuge and USA authorities granted his asylum, as the Somali Republic was too dangerous to live. This young man had bitterness towards the Somali tribes who led armed rebellion against Barre’s regime, which he considered as family. This angry young man remarkably worked hard to earn his first university degree as a refuge until he proudly received highest academic degree (PhD).
Now, Dr. Mohamed Adullahi Mohamed known FARMAJO used his doctorate thesis to express his anger by twisting the history, the following are the comments from his doctoral degree paper:
“European colonies naturally favored the tribes that proved their loyalty. These were offered a place in government civil service and law enforcement. These occupations come with a level of privilege and authority that some tribes enjoyed exclusively for years. Additionally, this new opportunity lured many nomads to move into urban areas to seek administrative employment. Most importantly, when European imperialist decided to give up their colonies in Somalia, they rewarded top leadership positions to the tribes and individuals closest to them. For instance, in the Northern colony of British Somaliland, the Isaaq tribe was awarded virtually all of the best jobs for its collaboration with the imperialists. In the South, the Italian colony found similar willingness in two loyal tribes: the Majeerteen of the Darood clan and the Mudulod, sub-clan of the Hawiye. These two southern tribes helped the Italians without reservation. In return, Italian and British colonies enabled these clans to claim some superiority over the other clans in terms of wealth, scholarship for their children in London and Rome, and future government influence in the post-decolonial era. Naturally, when the Somali government was formed, most parliamentary seats went to those tribes that had been loyal to the colonial rulers, as they were seen as best suited to stability. Somalia’s first president, Adan Abdulle Osman, is a prime example. He was a former civil servant under the Italians as a member of the Mudulod, Hawiye sub-clan. On the other hand, his prime minister, Italian-educated Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, came from the other favorite tribe, the Majeerteen of the Darood clan. This arrangement did not change until the election of 1968, when the Somali parliament elected Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke as the second president of the country. He selected as his prime minister English-educated Mohamad Ibrahim Egal from the Isaaq clan of the former British Somaliland.”
In the last 10 years, FARMAJO realized that international community is committed to restore effective government in Somalia (Ex-Italian Somalia), under leadership of the tribes who led the armed rebellion against Barre’s regime. This triggered his resentment and decided to join the Somalia politics, and to lead political rebellion in the country to fail these tribes from creating strong and stable Somalia. Particularly, the Somali tribes in Ex-Italian Somalia achieve peace to some extent. The citizens were able to travel between cities by road, and Shabab lost many areas in the country.
On 14 October 2010, Dr. Mohamed FARMAJO was appointed the new Prime Minister of Somalia. Somalia’s lawmakers overwhelmingly approved Mohamed’s appointment on 31 October 2010. 297 of the 392 Members of Parliament endorsed the selection via hand-raising; 92 MPs voted against and 3 abstained. Former United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon congratulated Mohamed on his new appointment. (Source: Wikipedia).
Such an appointment was an opportunity for Dr. Farmajo to execute his plans which is either Somalia to succeed under his leadership or it remains failed.
The appointment as PM has given him the opportunity to run for the president, and with support of foreign actors, he is now the president of Somalia.
However, and after he realized that his term is coming to end and Somalia will stand on its feet but under the leadership of the tribes who opposed Barre, he started creating political chaos by interfering stable regional authorities and minimizing the military operations against Al-Shabab. Today the terror group, Al-Shabab, recaptured all the areas that they lost to Somalia Army before Farmajo term.
Farmajo instructed the Somalia Army to invade the election in Baidio City and even the army killed unarmed civilians, which resulted in international outcry over the human rights violations by Farmajo in the city. He installed henchman to be the leader of Baidio City, which is against the Somalia federal constitution that grants autonomy to the regional states.
Somalia President Farmajo campaigned against the elected President Of JubbaLand Ahmed Madobe by asking the Ethiopian forces to capture part of regional territory like Gedo Town. He is planning to install henchman in Gedo which will lead the JubbaLand Regional Authority to have two presidents for the first time in history.
Somalia President used the Somalia Army to overrun the Dhuusamareed administration (Alhu Sunna Wal Jamaca – ASWJ), and he is organizing another dummy selection to install his favorite regime in the region. This is another violation to the federal constitution of Somalia. Farmajo provided financial support and supplied weapons to tribes in Puntland regional authority to oppose the current regime in Garowe, which resulted in armed conflict in Puntland which costed lives for the first time in last 27 years. Puntland is considered the mother of the federal system in Somalia. Today, the Al-Shabab group captured parts of Barri Region in Puntland, which was under the control of the government due to the political conflict created by Farmajo supporters in Puntland.
The international community is providing support to Somalia including the African Forces (AMISOM) who are fighting Shabab, and World Bank to support Somalia restructure its financial sector. The world has done a remarkable job in supporting Somalia, unfortunately, the hate-based policies of Farmajo could trigger clannism which could send the country back to civil war.
There are international actors like tiny Arab country of Qatar and Turkey who have interest in Somalia’s oil. These two countries support Farmajo despite his unrealistic and disturbing policies. Turkey and Qatar must know that Farmajo will go but Somalia remains, and the Somalians are watching very closely who is using their country for gaining control over the oil reserves in the country.
The decision of the UN Security Council to continue weapons embargo on Somalia was very wise and will save many lives, particularly that Somalia Army are not yet disciplined, and weapons could end up at the hand of Shabab. The world needs to reassess the situation in Somalia by considering the facts on the ground.
Abdirahman Abdishakur, a prominent politician and opposition leader, was attacked by Farmajo gang groups at his house on 18th Dec 2017, where the group entered his house without court warrant and against his will. The plan was to assassinate Mr. Abdishakur but he survived, but unfortunately, others including his personal security were killed and buried in an unknown graveyard. This violent step of Farmajo henchmen created fear and panic between the opposition politicians in Mogadishu.
On 30th Dec 2017, around 42 armed Farmajo militia attached the house of Senator/MP Abdi Qaydiid, who was luckily not in the house, however, his family and relatives where treated badly, and property destroyed by the attacking Farmajo militia. Also, Senator/MP Muse Suudi Yalahow defended similar attack by Farmajo gang, and his security chased away the militia. The government in Mogadishu did not investigate the two abovementioned incidents and no one was held accountable.
Farmajo is currently campaigning to control the Somalia’s Federal State to execute his evil plans against the people he considers “enemies” who participated in the removal of his mentor Mohamed Siyad Barre aka Afweyne. Farmajo attacked West-Southern Region during the regional election, where he arrested leading candidate Sheikh Mukhtar Robow to pave the way for his henchmen to win without challenge. Farmajo financed his vote-rigging campaign in West-Southern Region where $1 million was distributed to the 82 Regional Parliamentarians.
The Farmajo militia killed 15 unarmed civilians who protested the arrest of Robow in Baidio City. This incident angered the UN, where the former UN General Security Special Envoy to Somalia Nicholas Haysom submitted a report to UN against the misuse of power by Farmajo during the West-Southern Regional election. The next day, Farmajo government instructed Haysom to leave the country as ‘Persona non grata’ in Somalia.
In a similar attempt, the Farmajo regime interfered with the elections in JubbaLand and Puntland, where millions of aid money were spent into such unconventional campaigns. This is the first time that the federal government of Somalia is directly interfering the regional elections which is against the federal constitution. The government in Mogadishu rejected the flights going to Kismayo as part of pressure on JubbaLand elected president Ahmed Madobe.
In other hand, Farmajo team financed armed groups who invaded Bosaso Port and killed foreigners. Farmajo used the former speaker of Puntland to execute his agenda, but the people of Puntland and parliament replace the speaker, who is hiding in the Al-Shabab controlled areas of Bari Region.
Farmajo regime bribed the Ahlu Sunna Wal Jama (ASWJ) with millions of dollars and used foreign forces to occupy the Dhuusamareed town, and the ASWJ was removed forcibly two months ago.
Even the Republic of Somaliland, who declared unilateral independence from Somalia, faced pressure from Farmajo regime. He financed armed militia in far east and west of Somaliland, however, such armed groups varnished. Somaliland who is considered as the only surviving one-man-one-vote democracy in the region, complained to the international community over the illegal attempts of Farmajo policies.
Somaliland is also part of the people who overthrew Afweyne and is on the revenge list of Farmajo. He frequently meets criminals who participated in the genocide in Somaliland during 1988-1991. During inauguration of Somalia Embassy in Washington, Farmajo received Col. Tuke who is convicted felon by a court in USA for his crimes in Somaliland including mass killing of civilians. Farmajo, in his university thesis, expressed his displeasure over the role of the people of Somaliland in ending the regime of Mohamed Siyad Barre.
Today, Farmajo is using the international aid mainly from Qatar and Turkey to create political instability in the aforesaid regions of Somaliland and the neighboring Republic of Somaliland. He used the aid money to kill civilians in Baidio City. He is campaigning to get new loans from the World Bank and IMF to finance his chaotic and murderous plans, as his mentor Mohamed Siyad Barre aka Afweyne did.
The international financial institutions including the World Bank and IMF must ensure that loans to Somalia to be used in proper manner or to stop any loans to Somalia until elected government by the public comes to power. This is to avoid human causalities which could be result of the revenge plans that Farmajo is carrying out across the region.
By\ Abdulaziz Al-Mutairi